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Table 1 – Muscle Actions on the Spine and Innominates

Muscle Actions on the Spine and Innominates

Muscle Lumbo-sacral Ilium Origin Insertion
Quadratus Lumborum  CN CN  Rib 12 & TP L1-4  Iliac crest
Iliacus CN  Iliac fossa  Lesser trochanter
Psoas Minor CN  Bodies& discs T12-L1  Fascia of Psoas Major & Iliacus
Psoas Major CN  TP & discs T12-L5  Lesser trochanter
Piriformis CN  S2-4  Greater trochanter
Obturator Externus CN  Obturator   Greater trochanter
Longissimus T. pars L. CN CN  TP L1-4  Iliac crest
Iliocostalis L. pars L. CN CN  TP/AP L1-L5  Iliac crest
Longissimus T. pars T. N N  TP/Ribs T1-12  SP L3-sacrum & iliac crest
Iliocostalis L. pars T. N  Ribs 7-12  Iliac crest
Spinalis thoracis N  SP T1-10  SP T11-12
Lumbosacral multifidus N N  Lumbar SP   Lumbar LP, sacrum, Iliac crest
Gluteus medius – anterior fibers CN  Outer ilium  Greater trochanter
Gluteus minimus –anterior fibers CN Outer ilium  Greater trochanter
Rectus femoris CN Anterior  ilium  Patella & tibia
Sartorius CN  Anterior  ilium  Tibia
Tensor fascia lata – anterior fibers CN  Anterior  ilium  Iliotibial band
Pectineus CN  Pubic ramus  Femur
Adductor Brevis CN  Pubic ramus  Femur
Gracilis CN  Pubis  Tibia
Adductor Magnus – anterior head CN  Ischial ramus Femur
Internal & External Oblique Muscle Slings  CN on side of IO,
N on side of EO
CN on side of IO,
N on side of EO
 See individual muscles below  See individual muscles below
Internal oblique  – CN  Iliac crest, inguinal ligament, & TL fascia  Linea alba, costal cartilage & ribs 8-12
External oblique N  Outer iliac crest  Linea alba, contralateral rectus sheath, & ribs 5-12
Transversus abdominis N N  Ribs 6-12, diaphragm, TL fascia, iliac crest, inguinal ligament  Pubic crest, internal oblique aponeurosis
Gluteus maximus
(iliac part)
N  Outer ilium  Iliotibial band, gluteal tuberosity
Gluteus maximus
(sacral part)
CN  Sacrum  Iliotibial band, gluteal tuberosity
Latissimus dorsi CN N  SP T6-L3, Iliac crest   Humerus & contralateral GM
GM – Contralateral LD
Muscle Sling
 N on GM side
CN on LD side
N on GM side,
CN on LD side
 See individual muscles above  See individual muscles below
Rectus abdominis N  Xiphoid process  Pubis
Semitendinosus N  Ischium  Tibia
Semimembranosus N  Ischium  Tibia
Biceps femoris (long head) CN N  Ischial tuberosity & sacrotuberous ligament  Fibula
Adductor magnus – posterior head N  Ischial tuberosity  Femur
Pelvic Floor CN CN  Innominate & various muscles  & fascia  Sacrum & various muscles & fascia


The table provides the specified muscle or group, action on lumbosacral region and innominate, and origin & insertion.
N=nutation, CN=counternutation, GM = gluteus maximus, LD = latissimus dorsi, IO = internal oblique,
EO = external oblique, T = thoracic/thoracis, L = lumbar/lumborum, TL = thoracolumbar, SP = spinous process,
TP = transverse process, AP = accessory process.

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